S THOMAS1, M HAYASHI1, M TAY1, D FERNANDES1, B PAWAR1, P GEORGE1, S NAYAR1, S CHERIAN1
1Department of Nephrology,Alice springs Hospital, Northern Territory
Aim: To analyse the demographics and characteristics of the patients with renal calculi presenting at a single centre in Central Australia
Background: Renal stone disease is extremely common, causing substantial pain and large economic cost. Kidney stones form in response to genetic, environmental and/or metabolic risk factors. It is well known that nephrolithiasis can cause acute kidney injury (AKI) via obstruction of urinary outflow and recent studies also suggest that they are more likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). The prevalence of renal calculi has not been studied in central Australia.
Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted by reviewing the electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with renal calculi between Jan 2000 and December 2016.
Results: Of the173 patients presenting with renal calculi, the mean age was 47.39 +/- 1.11yrs. Renal calculi were more common in the fifth decade. There were a higher number of men with renal calculi (52.60%). Majority (62.64%) of them were residents in Alice Springs. Renal calculi were more common in non-indigenous compared to indigenous population (64.74% vs 35.26%). 41.42% of patients had renal impairment on presentation. Renal impairment was significantly higher in males as compared to females (p<0.05). There was no difference in renal impairment in indigenous population compared to non-indigenous population (43.33% vs 40.74%) (p=0.744)
Conclusions: This is the first analysis of renal calculi from Central Australia. There is a high incidence of renal calculi in non-indigenous male population in Central Australia which was similar to the global prevalence. Males were more prone to renal impairment. More studies need to be undertaken to identify the various factors causing renal calculi in Central Australia.